The Activity of Oxygenic Photosynthetic Microbial Consortia on Different Granites

Ayten Ozturk, Zeki Karaca, Tuba Unsal

Ekoloji, 2014, Issue 90, Pages: 90-96

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5053/ekoloji.2014.9011

OPEN ACCESS

Download Full Text (PDF)

Abstract

Deterioration of stone is a combined process caused by physical, chemical and biological factors especially, microbial growth. Various microorganisms are playing a key role in the weathering of historical artifacts, buildings, and monuments made of granite, marble, and other dimension stones. In this study, the biodeterioration of three types granite, Blue Pearl from Norway, Pergamon Grey from Turkey, and Rosa Porrino from Spain were studied for thirty days under laboratory conditions. The results showed that two of the granite surfaces, Pergamon Grey and Rosa Porrino, supported a heavy colonization of phototrophic microbial consortia. These results also showed that filamentous phototrophic microorganisms were dominant on the surfaces of the granites and indicated that the porosity, the availability of water and chemical composition of the granite have encouraged colonization and caused modification on the surfaces. The filamentous aggregates, possibly calcified fibrillar bodies in the inner parts of granites were also detected by SEM studies.

Keywords

biodeterioration, cyanobacteria, granite, photosynthetic microorganism

References

  • Anonymous (2009) TS 699: Natural building stones-Methods of inspection and laboratory testing. Turkish Standards Institute, Ankara.
  • Cappitelli F, Principi P, Pedrazzani R, Toniolo L, Sorlini C (2007) Bacterial and fungal deterioration of the Milan Cathedral marble treated with protective synthetic resins. Science and Total Environment 385: 172-181. Crispim CA, Gaylarde CC (2005) Cyanobacteria and biodeterioration of cultural heritage. Microbial Ecology 49: 1-9.
  • Cuzman OA, Ventura S, Sili C, Mascalchi C, Turchetti T, D’Acqui LP, Tiano P (2010) Biodiversity of phototrophic biofilms dwelling on monumental fountains. Microbial Ecology 60: 81-95.
  • De Belie N (2010) Microorganisms versus stony materials: a love-hate relationship. Materials and Structures 43: 1191-1202.
  • Diakumaku E, Gorbushina AA, Krumbein WE, Panina L and Soukharjevski S (1995) Black fungi in marble and limestones- an aesthetical, chemical and physical problem for the conservation of monuments. The Science of the Total Environment 167: 295-304.
  • Gaylarde PM, Gaylarde CC (1999) Algae and cyanobacteria on painted surfaces in Southern Brazil. Revista de Microbiologia 30: 209-213.
  • Gorbushina AA, Broughton WJ (2009) Microbiology of the atmosphere-rock interface: How biological interactions and physical stresses modulate a sophisticated microbial ecosystem. Annual Review of Microbiology 63: 431-450.
  • Gupta SP, Sharma K (2011) Biodeterioration and preservation of Sita Devi Temple, Deorbija, Chhattisgarh, India. International Journal of Conservation Science 2: 89-94.
  • Hoppert M, Flies C, Pohl W, Günzl B, Schneider J (2004) Colonization strategies of lithobiontic microorganisms on carbonate rocks. Environmental Geology 46: 421-428.
  • Karaca Z, Öztürk A, Ünsal T (2011) A Comparative study on the activity of oxygenic photosynthetic consortia on marble and granite. In: Baby S, Zygmunth B (eds.), 2nd International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology, 26–28 September 2011, Singapore, 447-451.
  • Nuhoğlu Y, Oguz E, Uslu H, Ozbek A, Ipekoğlu B, Ocak I, Hasenekoğlu I (2006) The accelerating effects of the microorganisms on biodeterioration of stone monuments under air pollution and continental-cold climatic conditions in Erzurum, Turkey. Science of the Total Environment 364: 272-283.
  • Rippka R, Deruelles J, Waterbury JB, Herdman M, Stanier RY (1979) Generic assignments, strain histories and properties of pure cultures of cyanobacteria. Journal of General Microbiology 111: 1-61.
  • Sariisik A, Sariisik G (2011) Environmental interaction properties of marble used in the restoration of historical monuments (Dalyan-Kaunos). Ekoloji 79: 12-20.
  • Sariisik A, Sariisik G, Senturk A (2010) Characterization of physical and mechanical properties of natural stones affected by ground water under different ambient conditions. Ekoloji 77: 88-96.
  • Warscheid T, Braams J (2000) Biodeterioration of stone. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 46: 343-368.
  • Duman Yuksel U (2008) Investigation of air temperature and surface temperatures in built-up and green areas in the cities: The case of Ankara City. Ekoloji 69: 66-74.
  • Zagari M, Antonelli F, Urzi C (2000) Biological patinas on the limestones of the Loches Romanic tower (Touraine, France). In: Fassina V (ed), Proceedings of the 9th International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, June 19-24 2000, Venice, 445-451.