Source Identification of Volatile Organic Compounds and Particulate Matters in an Urban and Industrial Areas of Turkey

Hakan Pekey, Beyhan Pekey, Demet Arslanbaş, Zehra Bozkurt, Guray Dogan, Gürdal Tuncel

Ekoloji, 2015, Issue 94, Pages: 1-9



Download Full Text (PDF)


Elevated levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulate matters have been observed in recent years in Kocaeli, Turkey, despite improvements in pollution prevention technology that have led to a reduction in gas and particulate emissions. Local authorities should devise alternative strategies to reduce the possible health effects of a variety of pollutants that affect air quality. The objective of this study was to identify potential sources of VOCs, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and coarse particulate matter (PM10) concentrations in atmospheric aerosols that were collected in the highly industrialised area of Kocaeli, Turkey, during the winter and summer months by using wind directions. Samples were collected from May 2006 to January 2007, and concentrations of eight elements (As, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) were measured using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometer. Samples were analysed for thirteen VOCs, including benzene, toluene, m/p-xylene, o-xylene, ethylbenzene, styrene, cyclohexane, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 1,2,4- trimethylbenzene, hexane, nonane and dodecane using thermal desorption (TD) and a gas chromatography/flame ionisation detector (GC/FID). The results show that vehicular emissions, oil and coal combustions, petroleum refinery and hazardous and medical waste incinerator are the significant sources of VOCs, PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations in Kocaeli.


PM2.5, PM10, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, wind directions


  • Anıl I, Karaca F, Alagha O (2009) Investigation of Long-range Atmospheric Transport Effects on Istanbul: "Inhalable Particulate Matter Episodes". Ekoloji 19 (73): 86–97.
  • Anonymous (2003) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological Profile Information Sheet, Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
  • Anonymous (2007) Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri. Instruction manual for Radiello sampler. Available online from
  • Baek SO, Kim YS, Perry R (1997) Indoor air quality in homes, offices and restaurants in Korean urban areas-indoor/outdoor relationships. Atmospheric Environment 31: 529-544.
  • Bakoğlu M, Karademir A, Ayberk S (2003) Partitioning characteristics of targeted heavy metals in IZAYDAS hazardous waste incinerator. Journal of Hazardous Materials B99: 89-105.
  • Bardana EJ, Montanaro A (1996) Indoor Air Pollution and Health. Marcel Dekker, Inc., NewYork, USA. Brunekreef B, Holgate ST (2002) Air pollution and health. Lancet 360: 1233-1242.
  • Chow JC, Watson JG (1994) Contemporary source profiles for geological material and motor vehicle emissions. Report No. DRI 2625.2F. US Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Research Triangle Park. Denier van der Gon HAC, Hulskotte JHJ, Visschedijk AJH, Scaap M (2007) A revised estimate of copper emissions from road transport in UNECE-Europe and its impact on predicted copper concentrations. Atmospheric Environment 41: 8697-8710.
  • Hopke PK, Xie Y, Raunemaa T, Biegalski S, Landsberger S, Maenhaut W, Artaxo P, Cohen D (1997) Characterization of the Gent Stacked Filter Unit PM10 sampler. Aerosol Science and Technology 27: 726-735.
  • Manoli E, Vousta D, Samara C (2002) Chemical characterization and source identification/apportionment of fine and coarse air particles in Thessaloniki, Greece. Atmospheric Environment 36: 949-961.
  • Olmez I, Gullu G, Ames M, Huang X, Keskin S, Che J, Wakefield A, Gone JK, Beal J (1996) Upstate New York Trace Metals Program. Volume II, Trace Metals Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Report No. MITNRL-064. Cambridge, MA, USA.
  • Onat B, Sahin UA (2012) Investigating of the Particulate Matter Size and the Relation of Black Smoke Near Traffic. Ekoloji 21(83): 77-83. doi: 10.5053/ekoloji.2012.839
  • Ozdemir H, Borucu G, Demir G, Yigit S (2010) Examining the Particulate Matter (PM2.5 ve PM10) Pollution on the Playgrounds in Istanbul. Ekoloji 20(77): 72-79. doi: 10.5053/ekoloji.2010.7711
  • Pekey B, Bozkurt Bulut Z, Pekey H, Dogan G, Zararsız A, Efe N, Tuncel G (2010) Indoor/outdoor concentrations and elemental composition of PM10/PM2.5 in urban/industrial areas of Kocaeli city, Turkey. Indoor Air 20: 112-125.
  • Pekey H, Arslanbaş D (2008) The relationship between indoor, outdoor and personal VOC concentrations in homes, offices and schools in the metropolitan region of Kocaeli, Turkey. Water Air and Soil Pollution 191: 113-129.
  • Ragosta M, Caggiano R, Macchiato M, Sabia S, Trippetta S (2008) Trace Elements in daily collected aerosol: level, characterization and source identification in a four-year study. Atmospheric Research 89: 206- 217.
  • Shareef GS, Butler, WA, Bravo, LA, Stockton, MB (1988) Air Emissions Species Manual. Volume II: Total Suspended Particulate Species Profile. Report No. EPA-450/2-88-003B. Prepared by United States Enviromental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA.
  • Watson JG, Chow JC, Houck, JE (2001) PM2.5 chemical source profiles for vehicle exhaust, vegetative burning, geological material, and coal burning in Northwestern Colorado during 1995. Chemosphere 43: 1141-1151.
  • Yatkın S, Bayram A (2008) Determination of major natural and anthropogenic source profiles for particulate matter and trace elements in İzmir, Turkey. Chemosphere 71: 685-696.