Environmental Effect of Grouting Batches on Microbial-Induced Calcite Precipitation

Xing Gong, Jiuge Niu, Shihua Liang, Deluan Feng, Qingzi Luo

Ekoloji, 2019, Issue 107, Pages: 929-936, Article No: e107109


Download Full Text (PDF)


To gain an understanding of the environmental factors that affect the growth of the bacterium Sporosarcina pasteurii, the metabolism of the bacterium and the calcium carbonate precipitation induced by this bacterium to optimally implement the biological treatment process, microbial induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP), in situ. The grouting batches of nutrient solution and bacterial liquid significantly influence the curing effect of Microbial Induced Calcium carbonate Precipitation (MICP). This paper analyzed the physical and mechanical properties, and micro-structures of the sand cured by nutrient solution and bio-reaction fluids in different grouting batches, through the geotechnical test, and SEM, respectively, to explore the effect of grouting times on MICP. Grouting the bacterial of Sporosarcina pasteurii and nutrient solution intermittently, the permeability and water absorption of the bio-cemented sand decreased with the number of grouting batches, but the dry density, unconfined compression strength, and the amount of precipitated calcium carbonate increased. The apparent pore content and the average pore diameter of the SEM images also gradually decreased, indicating that the mechanical properties of the bio-cured sand have been improved. However, the solidification effect didn’t continuously increase after filling nutrient solution nine times in this study. The reason is that the concentration and activity of the residual bacteria, as well as the size and number of pores in the sand column, reduced with the increasing nutrient solution grouting batches, which slowed down the rate of precipitation reaction. Once the sand was solidified by cyclic grouting reaction fluids, the mechanical strength of the bio-cemented sand also increased with the cycle grouting batches. Since the average porosity of the sand column in the SEM image was less than 2% after cyclic filling the reaction fluids three times, the solidification effect changed in apparently with more grouting batches.


MICP, grouting batches, sand, physical and mechanical properties, SEM, environmental factors


  • Achal V, Mukherjee A, Kumari D, Zhang Q (2015) Biomineralization for sustainable construction – A review of processes and applications. Earth-Sci. Rev., 148(S1): 1-17.
  • Ahmad Z, Arshad M, Asghar HN, Sheikh MA, Crowley DE (2016) Isolation, screening and functional characterization of biosurfactant producing bacteria isolated from crude oil contaminated site. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 18(3): 542‒548
  • Al Qabany A, Soga K, Santamarina C (2012) Factors Affecting Efficiency of Microbially Induced Calcite Precipitation. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 138(8): 992-1001.
  • Aslam Z, Khalid M, Naveed M, Shahid M (2017) Evaluation of Green Waste and Popular Twigs Biochar Produced at Different Pyrolysis Temperatures for Remediation of Heavy Metals Contaminated Soil. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 19(6): 1427-1436.
  • Barkouki TH, Martinez BC, Mortensen BM, Weathers TS, Jong JDD, Ginn TR, Spycher NF, Smith RW, Fujita Y (2011) Forward and Inverse Bio-Geochemical Modeling of Microbially Induced Calcite Precipitation in Half-Meter Column Experiments. Transp. Porous Media., 90(1): 23-39.
  • Bu C, Wen K, Liu S, Ogbonnaya U, Li L (2018) Development of bio-cemented constructional materials through microbial induced calcite precipitation. Mater. Struct., 51(1): 30-40.
  • Cheng L, Cord-Ruwisch R, Shahin MA (2013) Cementation of sand soil by microbially induced calcite precipitation at various degrees of saturation. Can. Geotech. J., 50(1): 81-90.
  • Choi SG, Chu J, Brown RC, Wang K, Wen Z (2017) Sustainable biocement production via microbially-induced calcium carbonate precipitation: use of limestone and acetic acid derived from pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng., 5(6): 5183-5190.
  • Cui MJ, Zheng JJ, Zhang RJ, Lai HJ, Zhang J (2017) Influence of cementation level on the strength behaviour of bio-cemented sand. Acta Geotech., 12(4): 1-16.
  • DeJong JT, Soga K, Banwart SA, Whalley WR, Ginn TR, Nelson DC, Mortensen BM, Martinez BC, Barkouki T (2010) Soil engineering in vivo: harnessing natural biogeochemical systems for sustainable, multi-functional engineering solutions. J. R. Soc., Interface., 8(54): 1-15.
  • Khodadadi TH, Kavazanjian E, Bilsel H (2017) Mineralogy of calcium carbonate in MICP-treated soil using soaking and injection treatment methods. 3rd Conference on Geotechnical Frontiers, 277:195-201
  • Li C, Yao D, Liu SH, Zhou TJ, Bai S, Gao Y, Li L (2018) Improvement of Geomechanical Properties of Bio-remediated Aeolian Sand. Geomicrobiol. J., 35(2): 132-140.
  • Li L, Qian CX, Zhao YH, Zhu YT (2013) Computational modeling of sand cementation by bio-mineral CaCo3. Mater. Sci. Forum., 749: 535-539.
  • Lian J, Xu H, He X, Yan Y, Fu D, Yan S, Qi H (2018) Biogrouting of hydraulic fill fine sands for reclamation projects. Mar. Georesour. Geotechnol., 36(8): 1-11.
  • Liang C, Ralf C-R (2014) Upscaling Effects of Soil Improvement by Microbially Induced Calcite Precipitation by Surface Percolation. Geomicrobiol. J.,31(5): 396-406.
  • Martinez BC, Dejong JT, Ginn J, Montoya BM, Barkouki TH, Hunt C, Tanyu B, Major D (2013) Experimental Optimization of Microbial-Induced Carbonate Precipitation for Soil Improvement. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 139(4): 587-598.
  • Min LL, Wei SN, Tanaka Y (2013) Stress-deformation and compressibility responses of bio-mediated residual soils. Ecol. Eng., 60(6): 142-149.
  • Muynck WD, Belie ND, Verstraete W, Jonkers HM, Loosdrecht MCMV (2010) Microbial carbonate precipitation in construction materials: a review. Ecol. Eng., 36(2): 118-136.
  • Nemati M, Voordouw G (2003) Modification of porous media permeability, using calcium carbonate produced enzymatically in situ. Enzyme Microb. Technol., 33(5): 635-642.
  • Nwinyi OC, Ajomiwe CG, Olawore YA (2018) Morphological and Biochemical Characterization of Biosurfactants Producing Bacteria from Diesel Contaminated Soil. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 20(1): 1-7.
  • Paassen LAV, Ghose R, Linden TJMVD, Loosdrecht MCMV (2010) Quantifying Bio-Mediated Ground Improvement by Ureolysis: A Large Scale Biogrout Experiment. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 136(12): 1721-1728.
  • Rong H, Qian CX, Li LZ (2012) Influence of molding process on mechanical properties of sandstone cemented by microbe cement. Constr. Build. Mater., 28(1): 238-243.
  • Stabnikov V, Jian C, Ivanov V, Li Y (2013) Halotolerant, alkaliphilic urease-producing bacteria from different climate zones and their application for biocementation of sand. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 29(8): 1453-1460.
  • Wei S, Cui H, Jiang Z, Liu H, He H, Fang N (2015) Biomineralization processes of calcite induced by bacteria isolated from marine sediments. Braz. J. Microbiol., 46(2): 455-464.
  • Whiffin VS, van Paassen LA, Harkes MP (2007) Microbial Carbonate Precipitation as a Soil Improvement Technique. Geomicrobiol. J., 24(5): 417-423.
  • Yang Z, Cheng X (2013) A performance study of high-strength microbial mortar produced by low pressure grouting for the reinforcement of deteriorated masonry structures. Constr. Build. Mater., 41: 505-515.
  • Zhan Q, Qian C (2017) Stabilization of sand particles by bio-cement based on CO 2 capture and utilization: Process, mechanical properties and microstructure. Constr. Build. Mater., 133: 73-80.
  • Zhang Y, Guo HX, Cheng XH (2015) Role of calcium sources in the strength and microstructure of microbial mortar. Constr. Build. Mater., 77: 160-167.