Ecological status of coastal waters of Ayvalık (Aegean Sea, Turkey) assessed by the EEI method


Ekoloji, 2015, Issue 95, Pages: 10-16



Download Full Text (PDF)


Macroalgae and angiosperms are proposed as biological elements to assess the ecological status of coastal waters and transitional systems by the EU Water Framework Directive. Recently, the Ecological Evaluation Index (EEI) was intercalibrated in the Mediterranean eco-region by the Mediterranean Geographic Intercalibration Group (MEDGIG). In the present paper, the EEI was tested at two different localities, the inner and outer bays of the city Ayvalık located on the Aegean coast of Turkey. The study shows a high ecological quality for the outer bay, whereas, the inner bay is of moderate quality.


Ayvalık, EEI, macroalgae, macrophytes, and Turkey


  • Anonymous (2000) Directive 2000/60EC of the European Parliment and of the Council of 20 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the Field of Water Policy. Offical Journal of the European Communities, Brussels.
  • Atıcı T (1997) The pollution and algae in the Sakarya River. Ekoloji 24: 28-32.
  • Ayvaz M, Tenekcioglu E, Koru E (2011) Determination of Trophic Status of Afsar (Manisa-Turkey) Dam Lake. Ekoloji 20: 37-47.
  • Ballesteros E, Torras X, Pinedo S, Garcia M, Mangialajo L, de Torres M (2007) A new methodology based on littoral community cartography dominated by macroalgae for the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive. Marine Pollution Bulletin 55: 172-180.
  • Carletti A, Heiskanen AS (2009) Water Framework Directive intercalibration technical report. Part 3: Transitional and Coastal Waters. European Commission Joint Research Center Technical Report, Brussels.
  • Gobert S, Sartoretto S, Rico-Raimondino V, Andral B, Chery A, Lejeune PBoissery P (2009) Assessment of three ecological status of Mediterranean French coastal waters as required by the Water Framework Directive using the Posidonia oceanica Rapid Easy Index: PREI. Marine Pollution Bulletin 58: 1727-1733.
  • Nikolic V, Zuljevc A, Antolic B (2011) Macroalgae as bioindicators in the Adriatic Sea: the application of CARLIT and EEI methods. European Journal of Phycology 46: 181-181.
  • Orfanidis S, Panayotidis P, Stamatis N (2001) Ecological evaluation of transitional and coastal waters: A marine benthic macrophytes-based model. Mediterranean Marine Science 2: 45-65.
  • Orfanidis S, Panayotidis P, Ugland KI (2011) Ecological Evaluation Index continuous formula (EEI-c) application: a step forward for functional groups, the formula and reference condition values. Mediterranean Marine Science 12: 199-231.
  • Orlando-Bonaca M, Lipej L, Orfanidis S (2008) Benthic macrophytes as a tool for delineating, monitoring and assessing ecological status: The case of Slovenian coastal waters. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56: 666-676.
  • Panayotidis P, Montesanto B, Orfanidis S (2004) Use of lowbudget monitoring of macroalgae to implement the European Water Framework Directive. Journal of Applied Phycology 16(1): 49-59.
  • Romero J, Martinez-Crego B, Alcoverro T, Perez M (2007) A multivariate index based on the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (POMI) to assess ecological status of coastal waters under the Water Framework Directive (WFD). Marine Pollution Bulletin 55: 196-204.
  • Sfriso A, Facca C, Ghetti PF (2007) Rapid Quality Index, based mainly on Macrophyte Associations (R- MaQI), to assess the ecological status of the transitional environments. Chemistry and Ecology 23: 1-11.
  • Sfriso A, Facca C (2011) Ecological Indices based on macroalgae and angiosperms in the Mediterranean eco-region: an overview. In: Stambler N (ed.), Life in the Mediterranean Sea: A Look at Habitat Changes, Nova Science Publishers, 521-541.
  • Taşkın E, Öztürk M (2012) Biodiversity of marine flora of Ayvalık. In: Proceedings of the Underwater Values and Tourism Symposium, 7-9 June 2012, Ayvalik, 3-4.