Detection of Priority Areas for Conservation: A Case Study in the Lesser Caucasus Region

Banu Kaya Ozdemirel

Ekoloji, 2014, Issue 93, Pages: 1-7

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5053/ekoloji.2014.931

OPEN ACCESS

Download Full Text (PDF)

Abstract

Marxan, a complementarity based area selection software, was used to detect the priority protected areas for the Lesser Caucasus Ecoregion. Six taxonomic groups, endemic and non-endemic highly threatened plants, globally important amphibian and reptiles, butterflies, breeding birds, large mammals, and ecological communities were included in the analysis. Nineteen areas (planning units) were identified as priority protected areas among 336 planning units (UTM grids) of 10 x 10 km. The efficacy of the identified priority areas were measured with species representation. Also, distributions of the priority areas were compared with existing protected area systems of the study area. Results indicated that priority protected areas achieved higher than 70% species representation for taxonomic groups and distributions of priority areas were very consistent with existing protected area systems. The Marxan program produced compact complementary priority protected areas. These priority protected areas provided the maximum species representation for the study area. Moreover, results showed the importance of already existing protected areas and determined the need for new protected areas.

Keywords

area selection, complementarity, marxan, protected areas

References

  • Anonymous (2007) World Wildlife Fund International- Caucasus Anatolian Hyrcanian Temperate Forests, A Global Ecoregion. http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/ecoregions/caucasus_temperate_forests.cfm
  • Ball IR, Possingham HP (2000) MARXAN (V1.8.2): Marine Reserve Design Using Spatially Explicit Annealing, A Manual Prepared for The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. The Univesity of Queensland, School of Biological Sciences, St Lucia.
  • Bedward M, Pressey RL, Keith DA (1992) A new approach for selecting fully representative reserve networks: Addressing efficiency, reserve design and land suitability with an iterative analysis. Biological Conservation 62: 115- 125.
  • Boyd J, Epanchin-Niell R, Siikamäki J (2012) Conservation Return on Investment analysis: A Review of Results, Methods and New Directions. Discussion Paper, Ressources for the Future (RFF-DP-12-01), Washington DC.
  • Carwardine J, Rochester WA, Richardson KS, Williams KJ, Pressey RL, Possingham HP (2007) Conservation planning with irreplaceability: does the method matter? Biodiversity and Conservation 16: 245-258.
  • Cook RR, Auster PJ (2005) Use of simulated annealing for identifying essential fish habitat in a multispecies context. Conservation Biology 19: 876-886.
  • Gençoğlu AG (2007) Avian community patterns in the Lesser Caucasus (North-eastern Turkey). M.Sc Thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara.
  • Heinzel H, Fitter R, Parslow J (1995) Türkiye ve Avrupa’nın Kuşları. Türkiye Doğal Hayatı Koruma Derneği Yayınları, İstanbul.
  • Hesselbart G, Van Oorschot H, Wagener S (1995) Die Tagfalter der Türkei, under Berücksichtigung der angrenzenden Länder, Dem Volk der Türkei. Selbstverlag Sigbert Wagener, Bocholt.
  • Jennings MD (2000) Gap analysis: concepts, methods and recent results. Landscape Ecology 15: 5-20.
  • Justus J, Sarkar S (2002) The principle of complementarity in the design of reserve networks to conserve biodiversity: a preliminary history. Journal of Biosciences 27: 421-435.
  • Kati V, Devillers P, Dufrene M, Legakis A, Vokou D, Lebrun PH (2004) Hotspots, complementarity or representativeness? Designing optimal small-scale reserves for biodiversity conservation. Biological Conservation 120(4): 475-484.
  • Kaya OF, Cetin E, Aydogdu M, Ketenoglu O, Atamov V (2010) Syntaxonomical Analyses of the Secondary Vegetation of Harran Plain (Sanliurfa/Turkey) Ensuing Excessive Irrigation by Using GIS and Remote Sensing. Ekoloji 19(75): 1-14.
  • Margules CR, Pressey RL (2000) Systematic conservation planning. Nature 405: 243-253.
  • Margules CR, Sarkar S (2007) Systematic Conservation Planning. Cambridge University Press, New York. McDonnell MD, Possingham HP, Ball IR, Cousins EA (2002) Mathematical Methods for Spatially Cohesive Reserve Design. Environmental Modelling and Assessment 7: 107-114.
  • Mendel LC, Kirkpatrick JB (1999) Assessing temporal changes in the reservation of the natural aesthetic resource using pictorial content analysis. Landscape and Urban Planning 43: 181-190.
  • Pressey RL, Humphries CJ, Margules CR, Vane-Wright RI, Williams PH (1993) Beyond opportunism: key principles for systematic reserve selection. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8: 124-128.
  • Pressey RL (1994) Ad hoc reservations: forward or backward steps in developing representative reserve systems? Conservation Biology 8: 662–668.
  • Powell GVN, Barborak J, Rodriguez S (2000) Assessing representativeness of protected natural areas in Costa Rica for conserving biodiversity: a preliminary gap analysis. Biological Conservation 93: 35-41.
  • Ramesh BR, Menon S, Bawa KS (1997) A vegetation based approach to biodiversity gap analysis in the Agastymalai region, Western Ghats, India. Ambio 26: 529-536.
  • Rebelo AG, Forey PL, Humphries CJ, Vane-Wright RI (1994) Using the proteaceae to design a nature reserve network and determine conservation priorities for the Cape Floristic region. Systematic and Conservation Evaluation, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Rodrigues ASL, Andelman SJ, Bakarr MI, Boitani L, Brooks TM, Cowling RM, Fishpool LDC, da Fonseca GAB, Gaston KJ, Hoffmann M, Long JS, Marquet PA, Pilgrim JD, Pressey RL, Schipper J, Sechrest W, Stuart SN, Underhill LG, Waller RW, Watts MEJ, Yan X (2004) Effectiveness of the global protected area network in representing species diversity. Nature 428: 640-643.
  • Sarkar S (2005) Biodiversity and Environmental Philosophy: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press, New York.
  • Sayan MS, Atık M (2011) Recreation Carrying Capacity Estimates for Protected Areas: A Study of Termessos National Park. Ekoloji 20(78): 66-74.
  • Sætersdal M, Line JM, Birks HJM (1993) How to maximize biological diversity in nature reserve selection: vascular plants and breeding birds in deciduous woodlands. Biological Conservation 66: 131-138.
  • Shirley MP, Richard MC, Andrew TK, Amanda TL, Mathieu R, Trevor W (2005) Systematic conservation planning products for land-use planning: Interpretation for implementation. Biological Conservation 125: 441-458.
  • Smith RJ, Eastwood PD, Ota Y, Rogers SI (2008) Developing best practice for using Marxan to locate Marine Protected Areas in European waters. Journal of Marine Science 66: 188-194.
  • Stoms DM (2000) GAP management status and regional indicators of threats to biodiversity. Landscape Ecology 15: 21-33.
  • Svensson L, Grant PJ (2001) Collins Bird Guide: The Most Complete Guide to the Birds of Britain and Europe. Harper Collins Publishers, United Kingdom.
  • Şener E, Terzi Ö, Şener Ş, Küçükkara R (2012) Modeling of Water Temperature Based on GIS and ANN Techniques: Case Study of Lake Egirdir (Turkey). Ekoloji 21(83): 44-52.
  • Williams P, Faith D, Manne L, Sechrest W, Preston C (2006) Complementarity analysis: mapping the performance of surrogates for biodiversity. Biological Conservation 128: 253-264.
  • Yüksek T, Cengiz T, Yüksek F (2008) Doğal Alanlarda Festival Etkinliklerinin Koruma-Kullanma Açısından Değerlendirilmesi: Kafkasör Kültür, Sanat ve Turizm Festivali Örneği. Ekoloji 17(67): 37-45.
  • Zielinski WJ, Carroll C, Dunk JR (2006) Using landscape suitability models to reconcile conservation planning for two key forest predators. Biological Conservation 133: 409-430.