Akdeniz Bölgesindeki Hayvancılık İşletmelerinde Gübrenin Yarattığı Çevre Kirliliği

Atılgan ATILGAN, Müge ERKAN, Burak SALTUK, Taner ALAGÖZ

Ekoloji, 2006, Issue 58, Pages: 1-7

OPEN ACCESS

Download Full Text (PDF)

Abstract

Manure from livestock building, when not stored properly, causes environmental problems including odor and visual pollution. The manure supplied from animal barns should necessarily be stored for future use in closed manure storages, which are built according to standards. Manure storages should have enough capacity to store manure for certain days. Closed manure storage structure can be used to prevent environmental pollution caused by manure from animal farm.
The study was conducted at animal farms in Adana, Mersin and Burdur province. The aim was to investigate effects of manure produced at the farms on environmental pollution. Farms were chosen employing aimed sampling method and 197 farms constituted the material of the study. Simple random sampling method was used to select farms in the questionnaire.
Auxiliary sections of buildings at which solid and liquid manure were stored at farm surveyed were mostly neglected. It was determined in 80% of the farms; manure which is used as animal waste was stored outside. Results showed that animal manure caused odor and visual pollution. Additionally, it was concluded that animal manure was considered as a pollutant to surface and ground water as long as it is stored outside in a pile.

Keywords

Animal farm, environmental pollution, manure, Mediterranean Region

References

  • Alagöz T, Kumova Y, Atýlgan A, Akyüz A (1996) Hayvancýlýk tesislerinde ortaya çýkan zararlý atýklar ve yarattýðý çevre kirliliði üzerine bir çalýþma. In: Tarým ve Çevre Ýliþkileri Sempozyumu, 13-15 Mayýs 1996, Mersin Üniv., Mühendislik Fakültesi, Mersin, 441-448.
  • Anonymous (1987) Hayvan Barýnaklarý-Gübrelik Ýnþa Kurallarý. TS 5244 Nisan 1987, Türk Standartlarý Enstitüsü, Ankara.
  • Anonymous (1996a) Manure Production and Characteristic, Standard of ASAE. Engineering Practice, ASAE, EP379.1, 576-578, Michigan.
  • Anonymous (1996b) Manure Storage, Standard of ASAE. Engineering Practice, ASAE, EP393.2, 585- 589, Michigan.
  • Atýlgan A, Erkan M, Saltuk B, Ekinci K (2004) Adýyaman yöresinde süt sýðýrcýlýðý iþletmelerindeki gübre depolarýnýn mevcut durumu ve gübrenin iþletimi. In: 3. Ulusal Gübre Kongresi, 11-13 Ekim 2004, Tokat, 773-780.
  • Atýlgan A, Alagöz T, Saltuk B, Erkan M (2005) Hayvan Barýnaklarýnda Gübre Depolarýnýn Mevcut Durumu ve Geliþtirilmesi. Çukurova Üniversitesi, Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 20, 2, 37-46.
  • Baird JV, Zublena JP, Hodges SC (1994) Nitrogen Management and Water Quality. The North Carolina Agricultural Extension Service, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.
  • Bayýndýr Þ, Þahin S, Uysal F (2004) Türkiye'de çiftlik gübresi kullaným potansiyeli. In: 3. Ulusal Gübre Kongresi, 11-13 Ekim 2004, Tokat, 735-742.
  • Bengtsson LP, Whitaker SH, (1986) Farm Structures in Tropical Climates, FAO/SIDA Cooperative Programme, Rural Structures in East and South-East Africa, Rome.
  • Çiçek A, Erkan O (1996) Tarým Ekonomisinde Araþtýrma ve Örnekleme Yöntemleri. Gaziosmanpaþa Üniversitesi, Ziraat Fakültesi Yayýnlarý No: 12, Ders Notlarý Serisi No: 6, Tokat.
  • Ekinci K, Çetin SC, Akbolat D, Atýlgan A, Onursal E (2004) Kompost oluþumuna etkili faktörler üzerine bir araþtýrma. In: 3. Ulusal Gübre Kongresi, 11-13 Ekim 2004, Tokat, 793-804.
  • Güneþ T, Arýkan R (1988) Tarým Ekonomisi Ýstatistiði. Ankara Üniversitesi, Ziraat Fakültesi Yayýnlarý: 1049, Ders Kitabý: 305, Ankara.
  • Harris BL, Hoffman DW, Mazac FJ (2001) Reducing Contamination by Improving Livestock Manure Storage and Treatment Facilities. Natural Resources Conservation Service Office, Texas.
  • Hodgkin EP, Hamilton BH (1993) Fertilizers and Eutrophication in Southwestern Australia. Setting the Scene 36, 95-103.
  • Huang W, Uri ND (1994) The Effect of Farming Practices on Reducing Excess Nitrogen Fertilizer Use. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 77, 79-95.
  • Jacobson LD, Moon R, Bicudo J, Yanni K, Noll S (1999) Generic Environmental Impact Statement on Animal Agriculture. A Summary of the Literature Related to Air Quality and Odor (H). Department of Animal Science, University of Minnesota, Minnesota.
  • Johnson J, Eckert D (1995) Best Management Practices. Land Application of Animal Manure. Ohio State University Extension Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, Ohio.
  • Mutlu A (1999) Adana Ýli ve Çevresindeki Hayvancýlýk Tesislerinde Ortaya Çýkan Atýklarýn Yarattýðý Çevre Kirliliði Üzerinde Bir Araþtýrma. Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Çukurova Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Adana.
  • Waskom RM (1999) Best Management Practices for Manure Utilization. 568A, Colorado State University Cooperative Extension, Fort Collins.
  • Yaldýz O (2004) Biyogaz Teknolojisi. Akdeniz Üniversitesi Yayýn No: 78, 184, Antalya.